Pornography Laws In India
Prof.( Dr.) Vijay Nagpal, Professor, Departments of laws, Panjab University Chandigarh.
Sushma, Research Scholar, Departments of laws , Panjab University Chandigarh.
Date : 11/05/2015 - Location : Chandigarh
IntroductionSex is seen as a forbidden subject in the social fabric of India, being linked to immorality, indecency etc. The Indian legal system has, to a large extent, upheld this social morality and made provisions in this regard. One such provision is the criminalization of pornography. The word "pornography" comes from the Greek word "pornographos" literally meaning writing about prostitutes. One of the commonly accepted definitions of "pornography" in modern times defines it as sexually explicit material (verbal or pictorial) that is primarily designed to produce sexual arousal in viewers. When value judgements are attached to this definition, pornography is perceived as sexually explicit material designed to produce sexual arousal in consumers that is bad in a certain way. There are many approaches to define pornography such as any sexually explicit material that is bad, although a particularly dominant approach has been to define pornography in terms of obscenity. This is also the practice followed in India, where pornography is seen as an aggravated form of obscenity. Pornography on the Internet is available in different formats. These range from pictures and short animated movies, to sound files and stories. The Internet also makes it possible to discuss sex, see live sex acts, and arrange sexual activities from computer screens. Although the Indian Constitution guarantees the fundamental right of freedom of speech and expression, it has been held that a law against obscenity is constitutional. The Supreme Court has defined obscene as "offensive to modesty or decency; livid, filthy, repulsive. In Indian film and television, there is currently a decrease in the taboo related to the depiction of sexuality. However, many Bollywood films, with an emphasis on the rich, urban class, rarely depict the true values that most Indians have about sex. There is a great taboo on sex in India due to a variety of reasons, many of which involve cultural values either native to India or those that conquering civilizations (such as Islam or Victorian England) have imported to India. According to Google Trends, the number of searches for porn from India doubled between 2010 and 2012; in 2011, seven Indian cities were among the top ten in the world searching for porn. Greater access to high-speed Internet would explain much of that rise. The sharp growth in Smartphone owners has also fuelled the porn boom. A survey by the Indian Market Research Bureau revealed that one out of five mobile users in India wants adult content on his 3G- enabled phone. It isn't just adults who are addicted to porn. A survey of public schools in Delhi conducted by Max Hospital revealed that over 47 per cent students discuss porn every day. There is no law against watching pornography in India, though there are strict laws against transmitting or distributing it. There is no case per se for banning the viewing of pornography. Yet, in a society which continues to, in many ways, be repressive about sex-there is very little sex education in schools and parents rarely talk about it to children openly-pornography can lead people, particularly youngsters, to have a distorted perception about sex. It is often violent, perverted and exploitative. The Indian porn industry, unlike its Western counterparts, is completely unregulated. Addiction to pornography can lead to dysfunctional relationships in the real world. Like in many other open societies, pornography has been a perennial problem which authorities continue to battle. The arrival of the Internet has compounded the problem immensely. Without being overly prudish or repressive, there is a need for education and regulation to moderate its insidious influence. Former C.J.I Justice K.G. Balkrishnan said in a national meeting in Delhi in January 2010 that there is an urgent need to ban websites that circulate pornography. There are certain practical problems faced by the governments in imposing a ban on pornography and if governments are not able to impose a strict ban on porn websites they should indeed issue strict guidelines to websites that porn advertisements/porn content should not be displayed on websites without the prior permission of viewer i.e. online porn or porn advertisements should not be shown without his permission, warning should be given to viewers when they enter the adult website. So, government can show this much sincerity if they are unable to impose a complete ban on pornography. Though the amendment of 1969 brought about changes to obscenity law, the primary object of the 1969 amendment of section 292 was to prevent circulation of and traffic in obscene literature. It was specifically to restrict communication of certain types of materials based on their content. The amendment did not still lay down the definition of obscenity. Though there is no specific provision in any statute that directly deals with pornography, it has been brought within the purview of Section 292 dealing with obscenity in the Indian Penal Code, 1860 (IPC) that imposes criminal liability for sale, distribution etc. of obscene material. This section was introduced by the Obscene Publications Act, 1925 to give effect to Art. I of the International Convention for the Suppression of the Circulation of and Traffic in Obscene Publications signed by India in 1923 at Geneva. Pornography has also been prohibited under the Information Technology Act, 2000(IT Act') and the Indecent Representation of Women (Prohibition) Act, 198617 (IRWP Act). What constitutes obscenity in electronic form according to section 67 of IT Act, 2000? To understand what constitutes obscenity in the electronic form, let us analyze the relevant terms: Any material in the context of this section would include video files, audio files, text files, images, animations etc. These may be stored on CDs, websites, computers, cell phones etc. Lascivious is something that tends to excite lust.
Appeals to, in this context, means "arouses interest".
Prurient interest is characterized by lustful thoughts.
Effect means to produce or cause some change or event.
Tend to deprave and corrupt in the context of this section means "to lead someone to become morally bad".
Persons here refers to natural persons (men, women, children) and not artificial persons (such as companies, societies etc).
Having understood these terms, let us analyze what constitutes obscenity. To be considered obscene for the purpose of this section, the matter must satisfy at least one of the following conditions:
1. It must tend to excite lust, or
2. It must arouse interest in lustful thoughts, or
3. It must cause a person to become morally bad.
The word obscene has not been defined in IPC as the concept of obscenity differs from society to society and from time to time. The test of obscenity has been given in Section 292 (1) of IPC which is based on an 1868 English decision in the Hicklin Case R.v. Hicklin, (1868) LR 3 QB 360 where the test for obscenity was laid down by Cockburn, C.J. as follows:
".the test of obscenity is this, whether the tendency of the matter charged as obscenity is to deprave and corrupt those whose minds are open to such immoral influences, and into whose hands a publication of this sort may fall. ... it is quite certain that it would suggest to the minds of the young of either sex, or even to persons of more advanced years, thoughts of a most impure and libidinous character."It has also been argued that the morality that is being considered in the IPC has little to do with any Indian tradition, but has been influenced by British rulers Christian morality. According to this morality, sex is a sin and is inherently dirty and the only kind of permissible, yet unmentionable sex is that within marriage and that too for procreation alone. George Bestialle, The Accursed Share: Vol. II the History of Erotism134 (1976) as cited in Wolfson, supra note 1, 1037, 1044 The IPC was framed in 1860, when this version of morality was imposed on Indians by the British through various means including laws. This has been reflected in Section 292 (1) of the IPC where "obscenity" has been explained as that which is "lascivious or appeals to the prurient interest or tends to deprave or corrupt persons". The IRWP Act defines indecent representation of women as the depiction of the figure of women as to have the effect of corrupting public morality. Thus the objective of such regulation of indecent representations as in pornographic materials is closely tied to the morality which in turn is automatically assumed to be predefined and commonly agreed upon. Section 5 of the IRWP Act gives wide-ranging powers to any gazette officer whereby he can, with a warrant, enter and search anyones residence and seize anything he thinks is indecent, including pornographic material. The power to exempt the material on grounds of being literary, artistic, scientific or religious has been vested with such Officer and even if the court later decides that the seizure was wrong, Section 9 of IRWP Act protects the officer from any legal action. Thus, a government officer is empowered to harass any citizen, and the citizen has no way to seek redressal. As soon as a law is passed declaring a certain activity to be criminal, people engaged in it tend to operate underground. Same is the case with pornography. It can also lead to abuse of power by the police and government officials who work in collusion with the violators of law. This is evident from the thriving black market for pornography. Quoting various studies done in the past, the Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research (IGIDR) estimates that Indias black economy is around 18-21 percent of the GDP (gross domestic product). From this, tax evasion accounts for only part of the black economy whereas the major black income is generated from illegal activities such as smuggling, trafficking in illicit drugs, pornography and gambling. This black market for pornography or obscenity has become a multibillion dollar industry even outside India. The entire gamut of Indian legislations dealing with obscenity has been upheld as valid under Art. 19(2) of the Indian Constitution which allows for the State to impose reasonable restrictions on the Right to freedom of speech and expression on grounds of inter alia public order, decency and morality The Constitution of India, 1950, Arts. 19 (1) (a), 19(2)..The only judicial pronouncement Ranjit D Udeshi v. State of Maharashtra AIR 1965 SC 881 - Law Finder Doc Id #110586 on the issue of the clash between obscenity and freedom of speech and expression recognized that the cherished right on which our democracy rests is meant for the expression of free opinions to change political or social conditions and for the advancement of human knowledge. The Court, however, went on to uphold the validity of Section 292 of the IPC on the ground that it manifestly embodies a restriction in the interest of public decency and morality and the law against obscenity, of course, correctly understood and applied, seeks no more than to promote these values. This approach by the Legislature as well as the Judiciary has completely failed to demonstrate how private use and enjoyment of pornographic material violates public decency and morality. The theoretical basis for this approach seems to be grounded in the harm principle, but the State has failed to demonstrate what kind of harm, if any, is caused by the private actions of consenting adults in manufacturing and viewing pornography. The State has also failed to demonstrate the inherent immorality of sexual expression and sexual stimulation through pornographic works. As stated previously, pornography, in its limited acceptable meaning, can serve as a positive contribution towards sexual freedom and liberation of individuals, which would ultimately lead to the healthy development of adults in the society. In the absence of any such exposition, the right to moral independence is violated by legislation whose only justification is the pain and disgust experienced by some people when others read or enjoy pornography. In Naz Foundation v. Government of NCT of Delhi (2009) 160 DLT 277 : 2009(3) R.C.R.(Criminal) 523 - Law Finder Doc Id #198337. The Delhi High Court took the right of privacy to a new level. The Court held that privacy recognizes a right to a sphere of private intimacy and autonomy which allows us to establish and nurture human relationships without interference from the outside community. The way in which one gives expression to ones sexuality is at the core of this area of private intimacy. If, in expressing ones sexuality, one acts consensually and without harming the other, invasion of that precinct will be a breach of privacy. Now, since manufacturing and viewing of pornography are medium of expression of ones sexuality, it must fall within the ambit of right to privacy, provided it is manufactured and viewed privately by consenting adults and thereby not causing any harm to the others. The other reason for these legislations abrogating individual freedom and autonomy is their treatment of sexually explicit material, that is, bringing everything under the overarching umbrella of obscenity without differentiating between private and public consumption of such material, as well as the content of such material which usually ranges from sexual eroticism, obscenity, pornography, violent and demeaning pornography and child pornography. Identifying this difference in degree could very well be the solution to some of the problems highlighted above. To call something obscene, in the standard use of that term, is to condemn that thing as blatantly disgusting. The corresponding term pornographic, on the other hand, is purely descriptive referring to sexually explicit writing and pictures designed entirely and plausibly to induce sexual excitement in the reader or observer. To use the terms "obscene" and "pornographic" interchangeably, is to beg the essentially fundamental and controversial question of whether any or all pornographic materials are really obscene. Essentially, whether any given acknowledged bit of pornography is really obscene is a logically open question to be settled by argument and not by a definitional fiat. Some jurisdictions like Canada, the US, UK etc. have at least tried to tackle some of these issues through their legal regimes. The US Supreme Court in Miller v. California 38 L Ed 2d 128: 413 US 15 (1972) 413 US 25 (1973) laid down the contemporary community test to define an obscenity offense, which allowed the state considerable latitude while making laws on obscenity keeping in mind the understanding of the community. Applying this rule, the court held that in the absence of distribution of the obscene material to minors or the obtrusive exposure of it to unwilling adults Billy Jenkins v. State of Georgia, 41 L Ed 2d 642: 418 US 153 (1973) the First and the Fourteenth Amendments of the US Constitution prevents the state and federal governments from any attempt to wholly suppress or ban sexually explicit materials merely on the basis of their obscene contents. The concept of contemporary community test was first acknowledged in Indian scenario in the Indian Supreme Court decision, Ajay Goswami v. Union of India (2007) 1 SCC 143 : 2007(1) R.C.R.(Civil) 633 : 2007(1) S.C.T. 554 : 2007(1) R.A.J. 767 - Law Finder Doc Id #125174. In this case the court held that the test of community mores and standards is outdated in the context of the internet age which has broken down traditional barriers and made publications from across the globe available with a click of the mouse and hence in judging whether a particular work is obscene regard must be had to contemporary mores and standards. The impact of obscenity laws in India can be seen in the unfettered discretion exercised by the Government to ban films, books and other materials on the pretext of immoral or objectionable content. The most glaring instance of obscenity laws being used to subvert individual freedom was found in the Ranjit Udeshi case Ranjit D. Udeshi v. State of Maharashtra AIR 1965 SC 881 - Law Finder Doc Id #110586 where the sale of Lady Chatterleys Lover (unexpurgated edition) was banned and the appellants who were selling the books were imprisoned. The Vagina Monologues, an episodic play by Eve Ensler that explores female sexuality through individual women telling their stories in the form of monologues, was banned from being shown in Chennai as the Chennai Police found parts of the script objectionable that could disrupt public order. Kamasutra: A True Love Story, a film by Mira Nair, had 40 cuts from the original version as prescribed by the Indian Censorship Board because of its sensuous contents before it could be shown in Indian theatres. Even the film Bandit Queen by Shekhar Kapur1 CC, based on the real life story of a dacoit Phoolan Devi ran into trouble when Delhi High Court banned it for its obscene content; however the Supreme Court overruled it and granted it a certificate of exhibition A (i.e. adult films) Bobby Art International v. Om Pal Singh Hoon, (1996) 4 SCC 1 - Law Finder Doc Id #86681.> The most recent and notorious use of such paternalistic interventions by the State occurred when the Government banned the cartoon - porn site Savita Bhabhi which is an adult cartoon strip featuring a married Indian womans sexual adventures. Be it in any of the cases discussed above, the decency and morality of society that is affected by the obscene material is the fulcrum of the Courts argument. But the morality that these courts stress upon seems more like an illusionary, predefined concept that everyone has agreed upon. The questions as to what exactly constitute this morality, and who set the principle to determine it has been left unanswered. The line demarcating the decent from the obscene is still vague. The statutes, be it IPC or the IRWP Act has merely copied the age-old English Law and the set of morals they were then based upon. The laws in England have changed but the Indian law still remains stagnant. The growth of black market for pornographic materials has clearly shown the ineffectiveness of these laws. Amateur pornography or sexually explicit material which is made and put online either as part of the porn industry, which is not very large especially in comparison to the global North, or by people themselves, is a relatively new phenomenon assisted by digital technologies and the Internet. In the last decade, the leaking of such material, and consequently the swarm of moral, ethical, social dilemmas that have arisen has led to most of the scandals. It is these scandals that are literally pushing the category of pornography out of the grey zones of being a public secret; out of rampant and unexamined illegality into the realm of the law - its imperatives, violence and descriptive plenitude.
The Effects of Pornography• Even "soft" porn is harmful to everyone. • All pornography desensitizes the viewer. • Pornography is addictive. • Pornography degrades marriages. • Pornography increases crime in dangerous offenders. • Pornography encourages and facilitates other crimes. • Harm to the Soul • Harm to Personal Morality and Chastity • Harm to Public Morality • Harm of Violence toward Women • Harm to Children causes Child Molestation. • Harm of stimulations resulting in Rape • Harm of Contracting AIDS and other Venereal Diseases in Peep Show Booths and Spreading the Same to the Public • Harm to Performers in the production of porno films and videos • Harm to Performers in Nude Dancing Establishment. • Harm to innocent persons criminally assaulted and murdered by those stimulated by porn, including Serial Murderers. Child and adolescent exposure to pornography is a controversial issue. Questions about the contribution of pornography to deviant sexual behaviour, including sexual assault, negative attitudes towards women, and the acceptance of deviant or aggressive sexual behaviour among peers, have been studied for decades. Results are mixed, with some investigators arguing for clear and consistent effects of exposure to pornography and subsequent sexually aggressive attitudes and behaviours, while others describe null or inconclusive findings. With specific relevance to young people, there is the additional concern of negative effects on facets of sexual development, such as sexual callousness, for those who are exposed to pornography. Estimates suggest that up to 90% or more youth between 12 and 18 years have access to the Internet. Concern has been raised that this increased accessibility may lead to a rise in pornography seeking among children and adolescents, with potentially serious ramifications for child and adolescent sexual development. Using data from the Youth Internet Safety Survey, a nationally representative, cross-sectional telephone survey of 1501 children and adolescents (ages 10-17 years), characteristics associated with self- reported pornography seeking behaviour, both on the Internet and using traditional methods (e.g., magazines), are identified. Seekers of pornography, both online and offline, are significantly more likely to be male, with only 5% of self-identified seekers being female. The vast majority (87%) of youth who report looking for sexual images online are 14 years of age or older, when it is developmentally appropriate to be sexually curious. Children under the age of 14 who have intentionally looked at pornography are more likely to report traditional exposures, such as magazines or movies. The majority of pornography studies have been conducted with adults. This is largely due to the ethical and legal considerations of exposing children and adolescents to potentially harmful material. A handful of adolescent studies suggest no relationship between pornography and behaviour. For example, a retrospective study of adolescent sex offenders found no relationship between prior exposure to pornography and the number of victims. Additionally, in a more intensive interview with a sub-sample of youths, the majority of offenders denied that their use of pornography in any way led to the subsequent sex crime. Clearly, more research is needed about child and adolescent consumption of pornography. Importantly, as the Internet is used by more and younger people, the effects of access to and exposure of online pornography on child and adolescent development will be a child and adolescent health issue of increasing importance. In 2005, two teenagers frolicking were captured on a mobile phone camera, and the clip circulated first through mobile phones and then subsequently on the Internet. The clip sparked a phenomenon of hidden camera an paradoxical mix of anxiety and thrill was possibly grasped at slightly in Anurag Kashyapd mobile phone clips - a booming pornographic enterprise on the Internet now. For a split second, it seemed like any kind of desire, even love could be rendered pornographic, captured in a ubiquitous medium and transmitted through the country. That Dev.D, where Chanda - the prostitute is the one depicted as the unknown girl who was part of the MMS clip.
Psychological EffectWhen an adolescent boy compulsively views pornography, his brain chemistry can become shaped around the attitudes and situations that he is watching. Sadly, pornography paints an unrealistic picture of sexuality and relationships that can create an expectation for real-life experiences that will never be fulfilled. Pornography shows us a world where relationships mean nothing and immediate sexual gratification means everything. Therefore, the adolescent viewer's brain is being wired to expect that sex and relationships are separate from one another, and that men and women's bodies should be sexually exaggerated as they are in porn--which can lead to shame about one's own body as well as failure to be aroused by the bodies of others. Psychologists have identified a five-step pattern in pornographic addiction. The first step is exposure. Addicts have been exposed to pornography in many ways, ranging from sexual abuse as children to looking at widely available pornographic magazines. The second step is addiction .People that continually exposes them to pornography "keep coming back for more and more" in order to get new sexual highs. Dr. James McCough (University of California at Irvine) says that "experiences at times of emotional or sexual arousal get locked in the brain by the chemical epinephrine and become virtually impossible to erase." A third step is escalation. Previous sexual highs become more difficult to attain; addicts therefore begin to look for more exotic forms of sexual behaviour to bring them stimulation. A fourth step is desensitization. What was initially shocking becomes routine. Shocking and disgusting sexual behaviour is no longer avoided but is sought out for more intense stimulation. Concern about pain and degradation gets lost in the pursuit of the next sexual experience. A fifth step is acting out the fantasies. People do what they have seen and find pleasurable. Not every pornography addict will become a serial murderer or a rapist. But many do look for ways to act out their sexual fantasies.
The Facts of Pornography• Multiplied incidents like the above graphically illustrate how the $8 billion-per-year porn industry has carved inroads into American life: • Nearly 900 theaters show X-rated films and more than 15,000 "adult" bookstores and video stores offer pornographic material, outnumbering McDonalds restaurants in the U.S. by a margin of at least three to one. • Each year, nearly 100 full-length pornographic films provide estimated annual box office sales of $50 million. • Approximately 70% of the pornographic magazines sold eventually end up in the hands of minors. • About 1.2 million children are annually exploited through child pornography and prostitution. • In the recent fairly progressive judgement on M.F. Hussains painting, this definition was reiterated, giving some degree of distinction to the category of pornography apart from it being an aggravated form of obscenity and to say that it is a class of objects, images, paintings, videos designed for sexual arousal, while other material which may or may not be obscene is layered with other meanings (aesthetic, patriotic, narrative). But as such it is not a much more evocative definition than "dirt for dirts sake". Unlike moral conservatives, who object to pornography on the grounds of the obscenity of its sexual explicit content and its corrosive effect on the conservative way of life, the primary focus of the feminist objection to pornography is on the central role that pornography is thought to play in the exploitation and oppression of women and children. Anti-pornographic feminists focus on its ideological role in maintaining gender relations that harm the status of women generally as well as individual women victimized by the violence that is sanctioned and encouraged by pornographic materials. The central claim is that society is justified in interfering with the freedom of mentally competent adults to say and do what they wish only when their conduct will cause harm to others. This has come to be known as the liberty principle or harm principle; and it forms the cornerstone of the traditional liberal defense of individual freedom At the root of this threat is a new definition of pornography, which has emerged from the extreme feminism, known as radical feminism. It states that pornography is gender violence that violates the civil rights of women. Pornography may well impact upon behaviour, although recent studies question the extent. But it is extraordinarily difficult objectively to measure that impact. Sexual responses are extremely complex, and elude artificial lab conditions.
ConclusionIn law, anything that tends to corrupt public morals by its indecency. Crimes against public decency and morality typically include not only prostitution, gambling, and drug use, but also pornography, obscenity, and various other consensual sex offenses-such as bestiality, deviate sexual relations, lewdness, indecency, seduction, fornication, adultery, and bigamy. Crimes against public decency and morality are sometimes termed victimless crimes by virtue of the fact that they generally involve willing participants. The moral concepts that the term connotes vary from time to time and from place to place. Whether pornography has any significant harmful effects on consumers continues to be a controversial issue, not only for average citizens but also for behavioural scientists. The issue that I am considering and putting forward here is how teenagers and women in society are affected by this evil. It has been observed that the effects of pornography are progressive and addictive. Internet has proven a useful tool for pedophiles and sexual predators as they distribute child pornography. Individuals access the higher the risk of their acting out what they see, including sexual assault, rape and child molestation. The habitual consumption of pornography results in a dissatisfaction of sexual needs and corresponding strong desire for more deviant and violent method for satisfaction. The victims of pornography are all around us. A child lost innocence, a women lost security and privacy and a man lost his self-control. Majority of pornography represent women as a complete sexual object and does not have any form of love and romance. Its main purpose is to humiliate and degrade the female body for male pleasure. Organized crime is heavily involved in pornography. It is a sad commentary that despite the Constitutional articles, legislative provisions, codes, self regulations, and various regulatory bodies, both Print and Electronic Media continue to portray obscene images of women. They focus on sex appeal or physical beauty of women. Then, are given clinched argument by the media that they dish out what the people want. All this is just hackneyed expressions without any sincere attempt to provide constructive suggestions and guidelines for the emergence of a healthy media industry. 19(1). All citizens shall have the right-
(a) To freedom of speech and expression; (2) Nothing -in sub-clause (a) of clause (1) shall affect the operation of any existing law, or prevent the State from making any law, in so far as such law imposes reasonable restrictions on the exercise of the right conferred by the said sub-clause in the interests of public order, decency or morality"Pornography is another one of those issues that borderline between free speech and sensibility. No doubt this article guarantees complete freedom of speech and expression but it also makes an exception in favour of existing laws which impose restrictions on the exercise of the right in the interests of public decency or morality. The section of the Penal Code in dispute was introduced by the Obscene Publications Act (7 of 1925) to give effect to Article 1 of the International Convention for the suppression of or traffic in obscene publications signed by India in 1923 at Geneva. It does not go beyond obscenity which falls directly within the words "public decency. Section 292, Indian Penal, Code, manifestly embodies such a restriction because the law against obscenity, of course, correctly understood and applied, seeks no more than to promote public decency and morality. The Indian Penal Code does not define the word "obscene" and this delicate task of how to distinguish between that which is artistic and that which is obscene has to be performed by courts and in the last resort by us. If the rigid test of treating with sex as the minimum ingredient were accepted hardly any writer of fiction today would escape the fate Lawrence had in his days. Half the book- shops would close and the other half would deal in nothing but moral and religious books which Lord Campbell boasted was the effect of his Act. For more effective laws there is need to change the existing law of pornography and a separate legislation should be enacted. Most countries attempt to restrict minors' access to hardcore materials, limiting availability to sex shops, mail-order, and television channels that parents can restrict, among other means. There is usually an age minimum for entrance to pornographic stores, or the materials are displayed partly covered or not displayed at all. More generally, disseminating pornography to a minor is often illegal. Many of these efforts have been rendered practically irrelevant by widely available Internet pornography. A failed US law would have made these same restrictions apply to the internet. If society allows pornography to flourish, young teenagers today think it is "OKAY" to hold a girl down and force her to have intercourse. When did the moral values of this society deteriorate to such a low level? When a young boy has easy access and constant exposure to such materials, the causal affects of such exposure of his mind helps him to formulate theories that support the above situation.
© Chawla Publications (P) Ltd.